Although the five-year civil war in the DRC ended in 2003 with the formation of a transitional government, crimes against humanity and war crimes against civilian populations – including murder, rape and sexual slavery, recruitment and use of child soldiers, and forced displacement – continue unabated. The civil war, often referred to as Africa’s “First World War,” has claimed four million lives and subjected countless civilians to displacement, rape, abduction, and torture. There has not been a cessation of violence since the end of the war; fragile peace agreements have been broken and violated over and over again. Persistent violence and the struggle for control over natural resources has dragged all of Congo’s neighbors into a regional conflict and human rights and humanitarian crisis, in a region already marred by instability.